There is an enzyme called Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase ( SGPT) which is normally present in liver and heart cells. When our heart or liver are damaged then SGPT is released into blood. So the levels of SGPT in the blood are elevated as soon as our liver gets damaged for example due to viral hepatitis etc or due to insult to the heart for example due to heart attack. The levels of SGPT in the blood can be increased due to some medications. This condition is called alanine aminotransferase (ALT).The old name for ALT is SGPT.
AST is related with SGOT and ALT is related with SGPT. Usually AST (SGOT) is found in the diversity of tissues which includes heart, liver, kidney, brain and muscles. By contrast ALT (SGPT) is normally and largely found in the liver. It doesn’t mean that it is located exclusively in the liver but it is the place, where it is concentrated mostly. It fairly specifies and indicates the status of the liver as it releases into the blood stream when there is some liver injury.
Though there are varieties of reasons due to which the levels of SGPT increases. One of the major causes to increase the level of SGPT is drinking alcohol. When any person drinks alcohol, the level of SGPT increases. Further there are many conditions and causes of elevated levels of SGPT and SGOT. The levels of SGPT increase with disorders which results into the death of numerous liver cells. Mainly this happens in the following conditions -
1. Acute viral hepatitis A or B.
2. Sometimes liver is greatly damaged due to overdose of toxins like acetaminophen. The brand name for this toxin is Tylenol.
3. When there is a scarcity or absence of fresh blood bringing oxygen and nutrients in the liver and it result into prolonged collapse of the circulatory system (shock).
4. Some pain relief medicines like aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and phenylbutazone.
5. Some anti-seizure medications increase the level of SGPT like phenytoin, valproic acid, carbamazepine and Phenobarbital.
6. Some antibiotics also increases the levels of SGPT like tetracyclines, sulfonamides, isoniazid (INH),sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin and fluconazole.
7. Some cardiovascular drugs like hydralazine, quinidine and aminodarone increases the levels of SGPT.
8. Some drugs which lower down the cholesterol like statins, pravastatin etc also increases the levels of SGPT.
9. Some other drugs like antidepressant drugs which are tricyclic type, increases the levels of SGPT.
When the drug is induced the liver enzymes shows the abnormalities but as soon as medications are stopped the enzymes normalize within a month.