Initially the damage in the liver can be detected by simple blood test. It determines the presence of ALT which is related with SGPT in the blood. Usually under the normal circumstances this enzyme is concentrated within the cells of the liver. But when liver suffers from some injury this enzyme is spilled into the blood stream. The increase in the levels of SGPT in the blood indicates the disease related to liver.
Normally ALT (SGPT) is found in the liver in large quantity. We can't say that this enzyme is located exclusively in the liver but it is concentrated in large quantity there. We can say that it serves as a fairly specific indicator of the status of liver.
The normal range of SGPT (ALT) is from 7 to 56 units per liter of serum. SGPT is a sensitive indicator of the liver damage or injury due to different types of disease. You must not equate automatically the higher levels of this enzyme with some liver disease. When the level of SGPT is increased there may be some problem or there may be not. Sometimes the elevations of this enzyme may be due to muscle damage. So, proper test is necessary before drawing some conclusion about the exact disease. For example, the level of SGPT of any individual is very high with acute viral hepatitis A. But many people recover easily from the problem of acute viral hepatitis A without residual liver disease. Contrary to this, people suffering from chronic hepatitis C may suffer from little elevation of SGPT. Due to this symptom, many individual quietly develop chronic liver disease like chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.
Any individual suffering from the problem of liver damage has to go for regular blood test so that proper comparison should be done from old records. If there are no old records then he or she must repeat for blood tests in weeks to months to see the difference and to detect the abnormalities which persist. An individual with increased level of enzymes will be at risk for hepatitis B and C, including sexual exposures, history of blood transfusions, injection drug use and occupational exposure to blood products. Sometimes the family history of liver disease also increases the possibility of inherited diseases like hemachromatosis, Wilson's disease, or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.
Individual suffering from increased levels of SGPT due to some liver or heart disease must also be on strict diet restrictions and proper rest.